# Thermodynamics by K. V. Narayanan (Solution)

## Chapter 1: Introduction and Basic Concepts (Solution)

Scope & Limitations of Thermodynamics, Definitions & Fundamental Concepts, Force, Pressure and Energy, Equilibrium State and the Phase Rule, Temperature and Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics, Heat Reservoirs and Heat Engines, Reversible and Irreversible Processes.

## Chapter 2: First Law of Thermodynamics (Solution)

General Statements of First Law of Thermodynamics, First Law of Thermodynamics for Cyclic Process, Internal Energy, First Law of Thermodynamics for Non-flow Process, Enthalpy, First Law of Thermodynamics for Flow Process, Heat Capacity.

## Chapter 3: PVT Behaviour and Heat Effects (Solution)

P-V-T Behaviour of Pure Fluids, Equations of State and the Concept of Ideal Gas, Processes involving Ideal Gases, Equations of State for Real Gases, Compressibility Charts, Heat Effects accompanying Chemical Reactions.

## Chapter 4: Second Law of Thermodynamics (Solution)

Limitations of the First Law of Thermodynamics, General Statements of the Second Law of Thermodynamics, Entropy, The Carnot Principle, Entropy – A State Function, Calculation of Entropy Changes, Clausius Inequality, Mathematical Statement of the Second Law of Thermodynamics, Entropy and Irreversibility, Statistical Explanation for Entropy, Third Law of Thermodynamics.

## Chapter 5: Some Applications of the Laws of Thermodynamics (Solution)

Flow Processes, Refrigeration, Liquefaction Processes, The Steam-Power Plant, Internal Combustion Engines, Gas-turbine Power Plant.

## Chapter 6: Thermodynamic Properties of Pure Fluids (Solution)

Classification of Thermodynamic Properties, Work Function (Helmholtz Free Energy), Gibbs Free Energy, Relationships among Thermodynamic Properties, Method of Jacobians, Fugacity, Activity, Departure Functions and Generalised Charts, Thermodynamic Diagrams.

## Chapter 7: Properties of Solutions (Solution)

Partial Molar Properties, Chemical Potential, Fugacity in Solutions, Henry’s Law and Dilute Solutions, Activity in Solutions, Activity Coefficients, Gibbs–Duhem Equations, Activity and Property Change of Mixing, Property Changes of Mixing for Ideal Solutions, Heat Effects of Mixing Processes, Excess Properties.

## Chapter 8: Phase Equilibria (Solution)

Criteria of Phase Equilibrium, Criterion of Stability, Phase Equilibria in Single-component & Multicomponent Systems, Phase Rule for Non-reacting Systems, Duhem’s Theorem, Vapour–Liquid Equilibria, Phase Diagrams for Binary Solutions, Vapour–Liquid Equilibria in Ideal Solutions, Non-ideal Solutions, Vapour–Liquid Equilibria (VLE) at Low Pressures, Vapour–Liquid Equilibria involving High Pressures and Multicomponent Systems, Consistency Test for VLE Data, Calculation of Activity Coefficients using Gibbs–Duhem Equation, VLE for Systems of Limited Miscibility, Liquid–Liquid Equilibrium Diagrams.

## Chapter 9: Chemical Reaction Equilibria (Solution)

Reaction Stoichiometry, Criteria of Chemical Reaction Equilibrium, Equilibrium Constant, Equilibrium Constant and Standard Free Energy Change, Effect of Temperature on Equilibrium Constant, Effect of Pressure on Equilibrium, Other Factors Affecting Equilibrium Conversion, Liquid-phase Reactions, Heterogeneous Reaction Equilibria, Simultaneous Reactions, Phase Rule for Reacting Systems.